The alien life in which she had become involved was a life without shame, without biographical specifications, without past or future, without obligations; it was a life that was extraordinary free. The girl, as a hitchhiker, could do anything: everything was permitted to her; she could say, do, and feel whatever she liked.
Perhaps I want to resist necessity. To trip up causality. To throw off the predictability of the world’s course through the whimsicality of caprice.
Nothing in this novel stays a secret exclusive to two persons; everyone seems to live inside an enormous resonating seashell where every whispered word reverberates, swells, into multiple and unending echoes. When I was small, people would tell me that if I set a shell against my ear I would hear the immemorial murmur of the sea.
Has mankind always lived inside such a resonating shell, without realizing it?
掩卷而思，这样一本近600页的小说除了是一个悲剧性的故事之外还有什么？小说中有一幅画多次出现，是书中角色罗果仁家的一副临摹霍尔拜因（Hans Holbein）在1521年创作的《基督在棺中(The Body of the Dead Christ in the Tomb)》，陀曾经在巴塞尔看过这幅画，留下极深的印象。这幅作品画的是刚刚从十字架上被取下来的基督那扭曲，折磨致死的尸体，其表明了一个神圣的灵魂在罪恶的人世间无法存在。这就是作者设计一个悲剧性结果的寓意么？我觉得不是这样的。因为作者同样描述了书中那些芸芸众生各种“矛盾”的心理，让人感觉到即使再卑鄙的人，也不全是恶的，时不时脑子里也还存有一丝善念，也会偶尔真心忏悔。我想陀希望突出的不仅仅是像公爵这样悲剧性富有同情心的高尚角色，对于那些灵魂堕落的角色，作者也时不时解开帘幕一角，稍纵即逝一瞥这些自私虚伪嘴脸背后善犹存的爱、友情、同情甚至是自尊。在人类种种行为背后有某种救赎的力量给人以希望，我觉得陀思妥耶夫斯基最根处还是乐观的。
Organised common (or uncommon) sense – very basic knowledge is an enormously powerful tool… You have to have a temperament to grab ideas and do sensible things. [Charlie Munger]
I have always imagined that Paradise will be a kind of library. [Jorge Luis Borges]
Knowledge has to be improved, challenged, and increased constantly, or it vanishes [Peter F. Drucker]
What is PKM?
Here is what I got from Wikipedia:
Personal knowledge management (PKM) is a collection of processes that a person uses to gather, classify, store, search, retrieve, and share knowledge in his or her daily activities and the way in which these processes support work activities. [Wikipedia]
But I have my version of definition:
Personal knowledge management (PKM) is a collection of processes that a person manages information, extracts and refines knowledge, share with others, uses knowledge to do sensible things and breaks boundaries between disciplines. [Hui]
It takes me very long to realize I badly need PKM. I love books (learning) which has been the case since day one. However, I was not on purposely selective about what I read. As a random reader, I went to a bookstore, randomly picked book and read whatever seemed to interest me at that time. Or sometimes my friends recommended book to me. It actually has been my attitude towards many other things: choose from whatever come to me that seemed interest me instead of knowing what I really want and go to get it. Unfortunately, I happen to be the kind of person who is interested in a million things under the sun. I randomly tried new things that I thought were interesting as if I would never die. It is not hard to imagine how I get myself in trouble…
What made me think I need to change? It goes back to Apr 2012 when a friend and I founded a statistical consulting company that provides statistical training and consulting in Beijing. One year later, both of us quitted and handed it to someone else for different reasons. Actually I was extremely passionated about running the business at that time but I was very unhappy and anxious. I became a terrible stranger to people who are important to me, someone not loving and caring. Later I read about focusing illusion which may explain my situation at that time.
Focusing Illusion: Nothing In Life Is As Important As You Think It Is, While You Are Thinking About It. [Daniel Kahneman]
I could hear God saying: “Hui, stop and think about what you really want.” So I did.
Our happiness is thus not affected to a large extent by reflecting on our lives, but by the flood of feelings that are constantly generated within us. [“The Optimism Bias” by Tali Sharot]
Anyway, I learnt a lot from the experience. Here I just want to mention three learnings that are related to PKM:
There are big gaps among:
Information —> Knowledge —> Skill
- I have to be selective: figure out what I want then go to get it
- I need to put effort on building Mental Framework
What is mental framework? It is what Charlie Munger calls Latticework of Mental Models:
You have to learn all the big ideas in the key disciplines in a way that they’re in a mental latticework in your head and you automatically use them for the rest of your life. If you do that, I solemnly promise you that one day you’ll be walking down the street and you’ll look to your right and left and you’ll think “my heavenly days, I’m now one of the few competent people in my whole age cohort.” If you don’t do it, many of the brightest of you will live in the middle ranks or in the shallows. [Charlie Munger]
Reading itself is not enough: you have to be able to grab key ideas and make sense of them. In order to found a sound framework:
- You have to learn different disciplines (as many as you can)
- Put effort on extracting the most important and basic concepts in every discipline and start to learn pattern
Once you have a framework, you can do something we call 触类旁通 in Chinese. Personal Knowledge Management, in my opinion, is a way to build Mental Framework. It aims at:
- Learn a set of strong, useful concepts from each discipline and tie them together in such a way that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.
- Know the edge of our competency, know that there is much larger part of the world we don’t know.
- Be able to tell what we can do, what we can’t; what is important, what is not. And do the important things that we can do.
PKM needs time to develop and I told myself to be patient. Here is my PKM MindMap (yours can be different):
Personal Information Management
Let’s start from Personal Information Management(PIM). I have been working on it since 2015 (You can see my PIM here). I break the process down to three steps. I will go through it one by one.
There are many information sources (book, magazines, newspaper, radio, internet…). Here are my personal opinions.
Use book as the main source and be selective about book. I prefer books prodiving core knowledge and read books with hot knowledge when needed. Let me further explain my definition of the two types of knowledge:
- “hot knowledge” is corresponding to specific concept and hard to generalize to other disciplines or bigger scope. Or it is ephemeral. Books of these kind includes novels, essays, news articles etc. I hope you get the point.
- “core knowledge” is the kind of knowledge that can help us to learn new knowledge, i.e. it will help us to to be a better learner, for example, basic knowledge related to humanity or the mechanism of our brain. Those knowledge can be easily used across disciplines and guide us in different ways. For example, mathematics, psychology, social study, brain research, classic philosophy, logic thinking, some management books that give you basic concepts. One trick: In order to learn core knowledge in an unfamilar discipline, I usually check the most commonly used textbook for the discipline in university. One example is “Marketing Management” by Kotler and Keller. I got several books when I started to work in marketing and “Marketing Management” is one of them. I checked the textbooks for different MBA programs.
- Magzines. It somehow becomes my habit. It is partly from childhood experience and more likely due to the flight miles that are about to expire……: P
- Official WeChat account subscriptions. Information from mobile internet is fragmented but it helps me to keep updated on the trend of some areas in China and keep myself on the same page with my friends in China : ).
- Avoid random browsing online which can be a time black hole. Make sure you know what you want and direct search for it.
- Quit RSS. The reason is the same. They can be a black hole. Don’t worry you will miss some valuable information. If anything is valuable, you will see it somehow elsewhere.
… There are other souces of information (such as talking to friends, professional groups etc) and I am not going to list all.
Next is to classify the information you have. I roughly classify them into 21 categories (see Reading Notes)
> unique(dat$Category)  Art Beauty&Health Biography  Biology Business & Economics Data Science  Gender History IT  Law Medicine Novel  Novels and Plays Novels and Plays-detective Other  Philosophy and Psychology Politics Proses, Essays and Poems  Self-development Society and Culture Statistics
Then it is important to further decide your target knowledge and skill. What are the difference? Here are my definitions:
- Information: something nice to know. You are not sure how to use them and don’t plan to spend time thinking deeper about them either.
- Knowledge: something you want to understand and have your own opinion on. You have to work on the information you gathered, think deeper about it, extract most important and basic concepts. You may also add thought on it.
- Skill: the knowledge you want to use. You have to put it to practice and eventually be familiar with it. In the end, it becomes your experience (long-term memory).
If you keep on collecting, you will eventually feel overwhelmed. That is why you have to clean it. Cleaning follows Occam’s Razor principle:
Occam’s Razor: Suppose there exist two explanations for an occurrence, the simpler one is usually better.
I generally consider it as law of parsimony and try to apply it in different dimensions of my life. Reducing unnecessary complexity has always been my principle.
If you bat away many things, you don’t clutter yourself. [Charlie Munger]
Take “Predictable Irrational” by Dan Ariely as an example. After cleaning the information, what I recorded in my Reading Notes are like this:
- First write down the main topic of the book. Author discussed one kind of irrational behavior in each chapter. So I recorded (1) the irrational behavior (2) the thinking fallacy behind it. For example, chapter 2 is about fallacy of supply and demand.
- What the book is about: The book talks about our irrational behavior and the thinking fallacy behind it.
- Chapter 2
- Irrational behavior: James Assael, Salvador Assael (peark king, James’ son), black pearl from black-lipped oysters, put them in the window of Harry Winston’s store on Fifth Avenue, Tahitian black pearls glowed
- Thinking fallacy (Anchor effect): last two digits of social security number, how much would you pay for the product?
- Anchor effect witll exist for long time even we set new anchor later, we will still be affected by the origional anchor. (anchors in the experiment: 10 v.s. 90, 50, 90 v.s.10 )
- Assael anchored his pearls to the finest gems in the world and the prices followed forever
- Take away points:
- The relationships we see in the marketplace between demand and supply are not based on preferences but on memory
- The sensitive we show to price changes might in fact be largely a results of our memory for the prices we have paid in the past and our desire for coherence with our past decisions—not at all a reflection of our true preference or our level of demand.
- … I will go through the book chapter by chapter. In the end I will have some summary points for the whole book.
The notes shown here may not make sense to you but what is important is that it makes sense to me. I hope you get the idea and you should have a way to clean information that makes sense to you.
Extract & Form Knowledge
Now we get to the difficult part of PKM. So far what we have is just information. There is significant gap between information and knowledge. As I mentioned above, you have to think deeper about the information to make it knowledge. Answering the following 3 questions will guide you through the process:
- What is the basic concepts for a discipline?
- Did I learn similar idea before?
- Is there any situation that I can apply the knowledge?
I will continue the discussion in the next post. Be happy everyone : )!
I first read the poem “Autobiography in Five Short Chapters" by Portia Nelson in 2015. Sogyal Rinpoche adopted it in his book “The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying”. Several days ago, I read it the second time in an article. It describes the growth process of many. It is difficult and effortful to grow because we have the natural inclination to keep things the way they were, to cling to the old maps and old ways of doing things even after we fall. La Rochefoucauld says:
We have more idleness in the mind than in the body.Portia Nelson was lucky to have the whole five chapters in her life. Unfortunately, many people simply repeat the first two chapters all their lives. But there are people do grow. What is the force that push those people to change, to walk down another street? It is love.
Love was defined as “the will to extend one’s self for the purpose of nurturing one’s own or another’s spiritual growth”. When we grow, it is because we are working at it, and we are working at it because we love ourselves. It is through love that we elevate ourselves. And it is through our love for others that we assist others to elevate themselves. Love, the extension of the self, is the very act of evolution. It is evolution in progress. The exclusionary force, present in all of life, manifest itself in mankind as human love. Among humanity love is the miraculous force that defies the natural law of entropy. ----- From "The Road Less Travelled" [M Scott Peck]According to the second law of thermodynamics, in billions and billions of years, the universe will completely wind down until it reaches the lowest point as amorphous, totally disorganized, totally undifferentiated “blob” in which nothing happens any more. Our human body follows this law. It is inevitable that we will decline physically as we getting older. But the spirit may evolve. Even we are not growing along a straight line but spiral. The important thing is we do grow if we want to. Go through the whole five chapters and don’t stop at chapter two…...
Autobiography In Five Short Chapters By Portia Nelson
Chapter II walk down the street. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. I fall in. I am lost... I am hopeless. It isn't my fault. It takes forever to find a way out.
Chapter III walk down the same street. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. I pretend I don't see it. I fall in again. I can't believe I am in this same place. But it isn't my fault. It still takes a long time to get out.
Chapter IIII walk down the same street. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. I see it there. I still fall in... it's a habit... but, my eyes are open. I know where I am. It is my fault. I get out immediately.
Chapter IVI walk down the same street. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. I walk around it. Chapter V I walk down another street.
Today is Chinese New Year Eve and 2016 is Monkey year [The 12 Chiense Zodiac]. How big holiday is it in China? It is Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Year all combined. Since it is such a big deal, something called Chunyun happens every year:
“Chunyun (traditional Chinese: 春運; simplified Chinese: 春运; pinyin: Chūnyùn), also referred to as the Spring Festival travel season or the Chunyun period, is a period of travel in China with extremely high traffic load around the time of the Chinese New Year. The period usually begins 15 days before the Lunar New Year’s Day and lasts for around 40 days.”
In my memory, it was a frustrating yet hopeful trip because once you survived it, you would see your family! Of course, there were awesome FOOD for two weeks which made all the suffering during the trip worth it! I would start from my parents, to grand parents, to uncles and aunts, to cousins, to childhood friends then go back to my parents……After this, not surprisingly, I gained 10lbs : )
Now back to real life, last night I spent two hours sending/receiving all kinds of “Happy New Year” messages to/from family and friends before I went to bed. When I wake up in the Sunday morning and sat besides the breakfast table, the first thing to do was to continue replying messages accumulated while I was asleep. The most common question is: “Hui, how do you celebrate Chinese New Year in US?” They haven’t realized that I am in Iowa NOT San Francisco. In their mind, US is the same as California. Iowa? Where is Iowa?
After I talked to parents, it was late Sunday night in China. My cell phone finally fell asleep with them. I took a deep breath and set out for Church. Then the magic happened. All of a sudden, everything about the big festival stopped. Everyone around me was talking about Super Bowl Sunday……It was like the spring festival had never existed. For a second, I thought that I might be in a dream. Either one hour ago I talked to people in China in my dream, or now people were talking about Super Bowl in my dream.
Pastor Bill said in today’s sermon: “We should listen to other people more!” I think that is a great idea. If my friends ask me again:
“Hui, how do you celebrate Spring Festival in US?”
I will reply:
“Listen to people talking about Super Bowl.”
It is called culture difference which is the beauty of the world: we are different! By living in another country, you not only extend your microcosm, the more important is that you know you are only part of the world, a tiny part. People don’t necessary care what you care and they don’t have to. We are in such a situation that human must deal with each other who have vastly different views as to the nature of reality. However, our particular culture, our family and childhood experience influence our understanding so much because these happened during our formative years. As a consequence, each one believes his/her own view to be the correct one. The world should function like we expect. Mom used to say :”I can’t believe there are people in the world don’t eat rice everyday.” And I replied: “Sorry Mom, but there are plenty people here can get away with bread. And I am not joking.”
Common sense is the collection of prejudices acquired by age eighteen. – Albert Einstein
This is the paradox. When you make effort to resist being self-centric, you are actually on a process of self-enlarging. Put yourself down, then you can start to learn more about the world. Why should we learn more about the world? Because it gives us better understanding of our place in the world and deepens our understanding of what life is all about. We all want to be understood. We all want to meet people who can understand us, care for our feeling and love us. But do we understand ourselves? do we love ourselves? If even we can’t do these to ourselves, how can we put the responsibility on others? If we need to understand ourselves, then can we do that without understanding the world we are at? Can we do that without undersatnding people around us? In order to understand ourselves, we have to learn more about the world. In order to learn the world, we need to be open to people with different mind. In order to be open, we have to put ourselves down. There is no contradiction. It is a synergistic process. I like the way Erich Fromm defines Mature Love:
Mature love is union under the condition of preserving one’s integrity, one’s individuality.
We are together but we preserve our own integrity. By learning from the difference among us, we improve our perception of the world and make one another better human. Those are words I give to myself at the beginning of 2016. All the best wishes to my family and friends. Thank you for all your help and love during the way.